The production of Serra da Estrela cheese is concentrated on an area of 3,000 km² in the mountainous region of Serra da Estrela. Local sheep's milk is used for making this tasty cheese, following very rigorous rules, mostly during November-March period. Its maturation period should last at least 30 days with specific norms. The texture of the cheese can vary from very soft semi-liquid to a soft but sliceable solid, depending on its age.
In 2014, the Serra da Estrela Cheese was boarded in the international catalogue of endangered heritage foods named Ark of Taste which is maintained by the global Slow Food movement. Moreover, the cheese was given the Protected designation of origin (PDO) status in the European Union, meaning that the whole product is traditionally manufactured with all stages in one specific region, this way acquiring unique properties.